Are you drowsy during the day with no explanation? Do you snore loudly, wake up breathless in the middle of the night, or experience morning headaches? If you’re experiencing any of these symptoms, you may be one of more than 12 million Americans who are affected by sleep apnea.
What is sleep apnea?
Sleep apnea is a condition in which your breathing stops periodically during sleep, as often as 20 or 30 times an hour. Each time you stop breathing in your sleep, the resulting lack of oxygen alerts your brain, which temporarily wakes you up to restart proper breathing.
Since the time spent awake is so brief, most people with sleep apnea don’t remember it. Many assume they are getting a good night’s sleep when, in fact, they are not. The constant wake-sleep, wake-sleep cycle prevents people with sleep apnea from achieving deep sleep, which results in a constant drowsy feeling during the day.
What are the signs of sleep apnea?
The following symptoms can indicate the presence of sleep apnea. If you notice one or more of these, contact our practice.
- Insomnia or difficulty sleeping
- Loud snoring at night
- Waking up at night short of breath
- Snorting or choking sounds during the night (indicating a restart of breathing)
- Headaches upon waking in the morning
- Falling asleep unintentionally during the day
- Extreme drowsiness throughout the day
- Memory problems
- Hypertension/high blood pressure
Are there different types of sleep apnea?
There are three categories of sleep apnea. The most common is called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and occurs due to a physical blockage, usually the collapsing of the soft tissue in the back of the throat.
Less common is central sleep apnea (CSA), in which breathing stops because the muscles involved don’t receive the proper signal from the brain. And some people suffer from “mixed” or “complex” sleep apnea, which is a combination of obstructive and central.
What are risk factors for sleep apnea?
Obstructive sleep apnea is more common in males than females, and more common in older adults (40+) than younger adults and children. However, anyone — regardless of gender or age — can suffer from sleep apnea.
Other risk factors include obesity, smoking, drinking, use of sedatives or tranquilizers, and family history. Central sleep apnea strikes most often in people with heart disorders, neuromuscular disorders, strokes, or brain tumors.
Is sleep apnea dangerous?
Sleep apnea is considered a serious medical problem. If left untreated, it can lead to high blood pressure and increased risk of heart failure and stroke. The ongoing state of fatigue caused by sleep apnea can lead to problems at work or school, as well as danger when driving or operating heavy machinery.
Sleep apnea can also cause complications with medication or surgery; sedation by anesthesia can be risky, as can lying flat in bed after an operation. If you know or suspect you suffer from sleep apnea, let your family doctor know before you take prescribed medication or undergo surgery.
How is sleep apnea treated?
Treatments for sleep apnea depend on the severity of each individual case, and the type of apnea. Basic treatment can be behavioral — for instance, patients are instructed to lose weight, stop smoking, or sleep on their sides instead of on their backs.
Beyond that, oral appliances called mandibular advancement devices (MAD) such as the EMA or TAP appliances can be used to position the mouth in such a way that prevents throat blockage. The device is personalized and custom-designed for you, so you can sleep without even noticing it. In more severe cases, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines or surgery may be the best option.
What should I do if I suspect that I, or someone in my family, suffers from sleep apnea?
Contact our practice for a free sleep apnea screening. If the screening indicates possible sleep apnea, our doctors can order an at-home sleep study. If sleep apnea is diagnosed from the sleep study test, then the appropriate treatment can be prescribed. Depending on your situation, treatment may involve an oral device that we can custom-design for you.